The following is for the Media Industries 1 assignment, Annotated Bibliography.
Rogers, DL 2010, ‘The Customer Network Revolution’, in The Network is Your Customer: Five Strategies to Survive in a Digital Age, Yale University Press, United States of America, pp. 3-26
This particular chapter in David Rogers’ The Network is Your Customer: Five Strategies to Survive in a Digital Age, provides readers with insights into the best strategies for thriving in a digital environment. Though not specifically aimed at television networks, it includes relevant information into the approach these networks may and should take towards an online presence. Rogers places emphasis on digital tools not only connecting users to products, but to one another; an important aspect to note about the digital environment. Rogers speaks specifically about the online environment transforming customer relationships; “Customers seek to engage with digital content that is sensory, interactive and relevant to their needs.” (Rogers 2010, p. 13)
The text is primarily aimed at a business audience, and clearly from a business-minded author, addressing the reader in an informative tone that often makes reference to strategies for success in the digital world. This tends to get caught up in giving long examples, and lacks an approach from a more communication theory based area, evident in referring to consumers of the online environment predominantly as “customers” rather than audiences. Regardless, there are aspects of the chapter that would certainly be valuable to the project. Rogers clearly has an idea of the possibilities of the online environment, and the way it has shifted the traditional form of the consumer – the huge impact of the Internet is not missed either; “The digital flow of our data, our ideas, our commerce, and our identity turns each of us into a node in an enormously powerful network of human interaction.” (Rogers 2010, p. 4)
Overall, the chapter gives interesting insights into how television networks should approach the online environment, and their potential audience on this platform. This has potential to be useful to our project, as these theories can be applied to the approaches of known television networks, and the audiences that engage with them online. However, as the text is so business orientated, more academic texts would be better suited.
Australian Communications and Media Authority 2012, Online Video Content Services in Australia: Latest Developments in the Supply and use of Professionally Produced Video Services, Commonwealth of Australia, viewed 9 April 2013
This report by the Australian Communications and Media Authority addresses the latest developments in the use of Australian online video content. This includes assessments of growth in digital media usage and online participation, Australia’s free-to-air broadcasters, subscription television (FOXTEL), the demand for online video content in Australia, and the future of online video services in Australia.
The report is a very extensive look at this relatively complex and constantly-adapting area. It acknowledges the changing preferences of consumers and audiences are “driving fundamental changes in how content is delivered by communications providers in Australia,” going on to state this growth in online participation is disruptive; “presenting both a challenge and opportunity to [the television broadcast] industry.” (Australian Communications and Media Authority 2012, p. 1). The report takes a very formal tone, and is clearly aimed at academics and those within the industry in search of information regarding online video content in Australia.
Our project will greatly benefit from this report, as it combines statistics with analysis of data. It covers a wide range of issue related to the project, and provides observations on each key area. It is one of very few available on the subject, and as it is produced by such a credible source, will be highly useful for the project.
Debrett, M 2009, ‘Riding the wave: public service television in the multi-platform era’, Media, Culture & Society, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 807-827
In this article, Mary Debrett discusses similar topics to those in her book, Reinventing Public Service Television for the Digital Future, but in quite a different approach. Instead of analysing particular public service broadcasting networks in depth, Debrett takes more of a general overview, going into more detail about the principles of public service broadcasting and developing online content. Debrett claims these principles to include universal coverage (a free service accessible to all), impartial news and current affairs, serving minority interests, reflection of national identity and culture, and the provision of innovative quality content.
In discussing these principles, Debrett provides a background of where public service broadcasting has come from, then follows this with interesting discussion of how this history has evolved with the introduction of digital television, and later with online television viewing. The article is written to an academic audience in quite a formal tone, but is at some points too lengthy, with points that could be made more succinctly.
The article will be valuable to the project as it gives an in-depth analysis of public service broadcasting from its early days to its adaption for digital and online television viewing. It gives comparisons between different nations, which will be useful when gathering an overview of the progression of television networks.
Binfield, M, Kackman, M, Payne, MT, Perlman, A & Sebok B 2011, Flow TV: Television in the Age of Media Convergence, Routledge, New York & UK
Flow TV: Television in the Age of Media Convergence is a collection of articles related to the effect of media convergence on television. All articles are linked in some way to the concept of ‘flow’ and ‘convergence’. Flow is described as an outdated term, coined in 1974 by Raymond Williams to describe the “collision of programs, advertisements, promos, film trailers” as the central experience of watching television. Convergence, on the other hand, is described as an umbrella term related relating to the convergence of new media digital technologies;
“If flow challenges the idea of the discrete television text, then convergence destabilizes the notion of television as a discrete object. Television texts overflow onto interactive websites, television content is available on myriad platforms, and television networks are part of multi-media conglomerates.” (Binfield et al, p. 1)
The text is primarily aimed at those with an interest in new media convergence culture, with a particular focus on television’s role in this arena. The broad scope of articles mean the text covers an expanse of issues, including analysis and conclusion on issues such as industry convergence and cellular television.
Though the text is expansive, it holds interesting articles that could prove useful to the project. In particular, an article titled TiVoing childhood: time-shifting a generation’s concept of television, by Jason Mittell, gives insight into the effect of the rise of digital and online television on a generation, and its comparison to those before it. This insight into generational audiences and the impact of digital television viewing on these audiences would be very beneficial towards the project.
Gentikow, B 2010, ‘Television Use in New Media Environments’ in Gripsrud, J 2010, Relocating Television: Television in the Digital Context, Routledge, UK, pp. 141-155
In this article Barbara Gentikow presents an interesting look at arguments centred around television and the new media environment. Gentikow comments on what she refers to as outdated arguments concerning television’s place in the arena of new media, including the proposed end of television. She goes on to note in contemporary society, more people use more media than ever before, but this neither adds to the use of traditional technologies nor detracts from it; “more complex situations occur with digitisation and convergences, such as parallel use of media, cross-media applications, the reception of media content from different platforms, new hierarchies of favourite media, but also surviving patterns of traditional use.” (2012, p. 142) To demonstrate her arguments, Gentikow examines three studies about television use, conducted in Norway.
Though these studies were conducted in Norway – perhaps a unique location compared to the rest of our research – they provide intriguing information into the use of television. The relationship between television and the ‘new media environment’ is also considered, and because the studies are relatively small, distinctive data and analysis are given. One study also compared the reasons behind subjects watching television online and offline, and hence gives insights into more than just traditional television viewing, but its development into the online environment. Gentikow writes in a relatively concise yet conversational style, being easy to read considering its less formal tone, yet the article is most likely aimed at academics and students studying the area.
The article will certainly be valuable to the project considering it provides discussion of the key arguments relating to television developing alongside new media and the relationship between the two. It also includes relevant studies that, though small and conducted solely in Norway, contain distinctive data and analysis concerning television viewing online and offline. The article is also easy to read, yet makes concise points, hence being very suitable for the project.
Caldwell, J 2004, ‘Convergence Television: Aggregating Form and Repurposing Content in the Culture of Conglomeration’, in Olsson, J & Spigel, L, Television After TV: Essays on a Medium in Transition, Duke University Press, USA, pp. 41-74.
John Caldwell makes it clear he is a strong supporter of television in his essay, Aggregating Form and Repurposing Content in the Culture of Conglomeration. To Caldwell, television was never under any kind of threat from the introduction of digital and new media technologies. From its early beginnings, television has consistently competed as the most trusted source of information and entertainment; “far from being eclipsed by digital start-ups, television engaged and even welcomed the threat.” (Caldwell 2004, p. 42) Caldwell takes a refreshing engagement of the topic of television in the new media landscape, delving more into its history of competition rather than its ‘fight for survival.’ Television is labelled as resilient, adapting to change, rather than bowing out, as others have suggested.
Caldwell writes in an engaging way, and due to his interesting stance and belief in television, the content of the essay is likewise engaging. At some points he does stray perhaps a little too far into the ‘dot-com world,’ but in these cases television is always related back to eventually. The text is most likely aimed at students and academics, perhaps with intent on challenging some of the more conservative arguments surrounding the future of television.
The essay is immediately relatable to the project, as its take on television and the relationship between it and new media technologies is quite refreshing. It will certainly be useful in comparing with arguments that believe traditional television viewing is on the way out, and gives useful thoughts as to how television has adapted in the past, and may adapt in the future.
Bennett, J 2011, ‘Introduction: Television as Digital Media’, in Bennett, J & Strange, N, Television as Digital Media, Duke University Press, USA, pp. 1-27
James Bennett’s introductory chapter of book Television as Digital Media divulges in the complex area of television’s place in digital media and new media technologies. Television is said to be digital media, not new media. Furthermore, digital media is becoming less ‘new’, and more ordinary, everyday and accepted as regular practice; “just as we learned to live with television, we are learning to live with digital television.” (Bennett 2011, p. 22) Bennett touches on the uncertain placement by others of television within the realm of new media, noting television is often seen as the old form of technology thrown into the new, but always connected with its traditional roots. “Television’s digitization explicitly makes a new media form out of a technology that has often been positioned as the old media technology par excellence.” (Bennett 2011, p. 7)
The text often becomes quite lengthy, with explanations that often give little insight yet are rather extensive. It is clear, though, that the text, and the entire book for that matter, is aimed primarily at academics due to its tone of voice and use of comparisons between academic arguments.
Though the text makes some interesting insights into the placement of television as a digital technology, it also has a lot of focus on the new media environment. As our project is mostly focused on online television viewing and its development from traditional television viewing, this focus on new media may not be as useful towards the project. The text does, however, present comparisons of academic arguments concerning television’s place in the digital environment, which would be beneficial to our research surrounding the nature of online television viewing.
Debrett, M 2010, Reinventing public service television for the digital future, Intellect, UK & USA.
Reinventing Public Service Television for the Digital Future by Mary Debrett examines the transition of public service television from traditional viewing to the digital area in Australia, the UK, the United States and New Zealand. Debrett discusses the need for public service television had to reinvent itself as a digital content provider in order to achieve more certain future prospects. Debrett also highlights the significance of each public service broadcaster’s history as a broadcaster (for example, in Australia, the ABC), playing it against the digital world each broadcaster must now compete in.
The text is a well written in-depth look at the changes public service television has been forced to make in line with the introduction of the digital era. Because each network examined is a public service broadcaster, analysis becomes an interesting look into each respective country’s relationship with public broadcasting, and the way this relationship has developed and grown with the country over numerous decades.
Given the text covers public service broadcasters from several nations, it becomes useful to the project to provide not only informative insights into the development of public broadcasting for the digital era, but also provides comparisons between nations relating to cultural and political differences regarding public television broadcasting and online content.