Role - as it evolved/changed throughout the project, your position and function within the group structure, the issue you faced and your part in formulating solutions：
At the start of the group project, we had assigned each group member with particular jobs/roles. According to the collaborative contract we made at the start, I am project manager, and web designer. My job is to contact everyone in our group, schedule meeting, record meeting notes, make sure everything on the right track. Also I have to do design our website for the final project. During the process of this project I think I did what I have to do. As I am in charge of organization part, I created a facebook page for everyone to share their ideas and communicating immediately. And I created a google doc to put everyone’s writing and researching together. Every week we had meeting after our tutorial, and I documented the meeting notes, edited it and upload to facebook group page. Since we start meeting with our tutor everyweek, I only missed one meeting, for the reset of meetings I took notes from our tutor and shared the feedback on facebook. I designed the website on weebly for showing our research. Also I did interview with Alice and Silway as interviewer, and they edited interviews. I made the powerpoint for the final presentation as well. So I did my jobs and I really enjoyed it. However I think as a big group of six people, everyone should contribute equally to make the project better, because some group member of us always missed class and do not attend the meeting. So I think maybe we can have a peer assessment in this course in the future.
(The link is a blog entry to evidence the participation of my work based on the posts on facebook: http://raws.adc.rmit.edu.au/~s3259827/blog2/?p=642)
Progress - in your research capability, in observing your learning behaviorism in identifying your strengths and weaknesses:
In my research capability: At the start of this semester, we went to rmit library had a research class with one librarian. I found it is very useful, because in the past I only use online search and very simplely research key words at library. But this library tutorial let me know there are much more resources I can find from library website. In observing your learning behaviorism: Honestly speaking I was not very engaged in this project at the start. One reason is I just came from a long holiday, I was lazy at studying. And also I think my topic is too easy for me, I think I know what I am going to talk about. However when I start to do the research, I found my topic is a huge topic, I have to reading many different texts, listen to many opinions and then to choose which one is suit for me. The more I read and researched on my topic the more knowledge I learnt. So I did my study more seriously then before. In identifying your strengths and weaknesses: my strengths are I am good at time organizing and I like to make plan for my study. And I like to do the filming or designing things. But my weaknesses are I do not have patient, to be specific I can not focus on reading. So I always find some interesting resources but end up without finish read them all. And I need spend some time on improving my writing skill.
Strategies - research strategies, collaborative strategies and personal learning strategies.
Before we start the research project we had another assignment which is the annotated bibliography, to help us know more about our topic. We learnt how to use RMIT databases for research when we doing this assignment. And I did used RMIT databases for the research project. For instance, I went to the databases choose the subject area that relates to my topic, and search the key words and database set, then it took me to the resources. Some of the resources are e-journals or articles from RMIT and some of them are form another website. I found many useful e-journals there. I think news is another useful resource. For example I found some interesting news related to my topic then I had some research on it, it is became one of my case studies now. (link is a blog entry of I find some useful news for case study:http://raws.adc.rmit.edu.au/~s3259827/blog2/?p=668) For the collaborative strategies, we used facebook group to communicate, it works really well. Because facebook is the most popular social networking website, so people check on it all the time. When we post some idea on the group page, peers response it very quickly. We gave everyone a job at the start, but is did not work well. So I think before we decide who is going to do what, we should all list our strengths and weaknesses, so that we can do our work better. In the personal learning time, I read the readings from blackboard which is very helpful (link is a blog entry of my reading reflection: http://raws.adc.rmit.edu.au/~s3259827/blog2/?p=631), and I also communicate a lot with the peers, which is really good, I can learn from them and their feedback of my work are really helpful.
Problems - nominate a few key problems or difficulties that you faced and discuss how you resolved these.
- Research: too much information. I found a lot of readings and book relate to my research topic. Many of books are very thick and boring to read (law and constitution). Then I choose the most relevant articles to read.
- Web design:I find it is hard to edit the group website than edit my own one. Because everyone in our group have access to the website to edit their own part, so it became a mess sometimes. For example, the layout of each person’s page is different, and the size and color of the text are different. The most challenge part is to arrange the pages or categories in a logical order that means I have to reading everyone’s writing and change some structure of our website.
- Citation: when we show the website to our tutor, she remaindered us that we have to cite everything we found, includes the images and text. So I have to find where the pictures I used came from, and I search how to reference the online image online. (link a blog entry of how to reference resources: http://raws.adc.rmit.edu.au/~s3259827/blog2/?p=658)
- Interview: it is hard to find interviewee. At first, I searched many websites about journalist because we want to interview somebody worked in media industry so that he/she knows about it. But it is not working, then we found our interviewees on Weibo - the Chinese twitter.
Connection & intersections - what do you see as the value of this course, what have you learnt overall? How do you see what you have learnt about yourself via the process the content of your research fitting into your future career development and future work?
This course is important to a media student. We are able to use the skills we have learnt before such as filming, interviewing and web designing. Also we have chance to enhance our research skills and team working skills. Overall I learnt how to research professionally and how to structure a big research topic. I learnt to be more responsible in a group, because it is my first time doing the leading role in a group. I learnt how to absorb other people’s advises and opinions. I learnt that social networking is a useful tool of communication not just for fun but also for professional. I learnt how to make an interesting presentation online (link a blog entry of how to using prezi and powtoon:http://raws.adc.rmit.edu.au/~s3259827/blog2/?p=672). I realized that media industry is so much more complex than I imagined before. I used to think that media is just about making some videos, writing articles, and taking some fancy photos for magazine. But now I think media is more about the thought, the idea, and culture. Media workers dig things which are not discovered by many people, they create ideas which can influence audiences’ thoughts. So I think before I start to “creative” I need to know more about what media is, and research is just what I need to do more. I am sure what I have learnt is useful in my future, maybe when I back to China I can tell people a lot of things they do not have chance to know and I want to improve the media culture in my home country.
Overall grade: HD
the url of our research project:http://freedomofspeechresearch.weebly.com/
At the end of this semester, we did our media industry final presentation today, which means classes of this semester are all over. This post is one of the working process post, it documents my contribute to the media industry group project based on the discussion we had on facebook.
my role in this group is manager , so my job is to schedule meeting, interview, and organize all the works together on the website or on our google doc.
- first week of our production, I created our group facebook page for convinience communication.
- Then the following weeks , we assigned roles for each member in our group. And we did the group brief and contract. I edited everyone's part and printed it out.
- the first brief Presentation in Lecture
- Website on the track, I designed our website on weebly, and access all other members to edit it.
- Then Alice, Silway and I did the interview. We find two interviewees to talk about the differences of free speech in Australia and China, and we did interview with them.
- The last few weeks of this semester are quite busy， we were keep writing the report and prepare for the final presentation. We divided our presentation into different parts (with richel's help) and I did the powerpoint on prezi to make our ppt more interesting.
as the feedback of our group's practice presentation, we need to be more Interesting. So I decide not only improve form the content, also from the 'ourside' - how to make a interesting presentation.
I found two interesting website, Prezi, and Powtoon.
Powtoon is funny and vivid, but it will make the ppt to a video format eventually. So I think it is suit to how is going to show their ideas and or make an tutorial. But I still tried it, it is really good.
When I doing the free speech research topic between china and australia, in my home country china always have some news relates to free speech. I hope this is the evidence of we are fighting for our right, and it is time for chinese government to do some change.
The news which attractive to me is the one happens in my hometown Kunming. Kunming is capital city of Yunnan province of China. It is located in southwest of China. It is famous as its beautiful natural landscapes and weather, however the government wants to put a 'monster' project to this beautiful city. How did I know this thing, is because I found that lots of friends in Kunming posted some pictures on Weibo(chinese twitter), also my mother said she went to the parade of against Kunming PX project. So I searched on google, BBC news titled the news "Protest in China at chemical plant plans for Kunming" in 4 May. According to BBC:
Hundreds of people have rallied in the Chinese city of Kunming to protest at plans for a factory producing a toxic chemical for the textile industry.
Some demonstrators wore symbolic masks and brandished posters warning against the dangers of a paraxylene (PX) spill.
"We want to survive, we want health, get PX out of Kunming", a banner read.
Two years ago, protests against a PX factory in the city of Dalian forced the city government to close the plant, though it reportedly re-opened later.
Saturday's protest in Kunming, in the south-west of the country, attracted at least 200 people, according to state media.
Chinese bloggers, however, put the number at up to 2,000.
The China National Petroleum Corporation plans to build a chemical plant in the nearby town of Anning to produce 500,000 tonnes of PX annually.
PX is used to create raw materials for the production of polyester film and fabrics.
Correspondents say urban Chinese are becoming increasingly confident about protesting at potential threats to their environment.
Even a A child held up posters during the protest in Kunming.
However, the major chinese news channels or papers do not say anything about this huge event. Why ? it is simple, because we are against the government. All the post on Weibo been deletd after few hours, I was so disapointed about my country, So I decide to use this news as one of my case studies in the research report.
1. Dakroury, A 2009, Communication and Human Rights, Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque.
In this book Dakroury talks about the relationship between communication and human right. The author’s desire in the field of communication studies is the motivation of writing this book. Dakroury concerns about issues such as internet censorship, government shutting down websites etc. The author uses case studies to reveal the early context of the right to communicate in America and France. And then he debates on the right of speech such as hate speech versus free speech. Thus this book has two main parts: freedom of speech and human right. The chapter 1 and chapter 3 of this book is useful to my research production as these two chapters talks about freedom of speech. But other chapters talk about human rights and philosophy which are not suit to my topic.
2. Katharine, G 2011, Speech Matters: Getting Free Speech Right, University of Queensland Press, Queensland.
In this book Katharine suggests that free speech is an important democratic freedom and most Australians think that they are able to free speech in this country. However when an expression is seen as hostile, government have a tendency to want to shut it down and silent it. Katharine uses surveys to show that political speech to try to discover where, when and how speech is regulated in Australian political culture. Thus the focus of this book is on “political speech”, including political protest, use of the national flag, speech that promotes terrorism, hate speech, dissent and political art. I can use this book for my research topic as my topic is that compare the freedom of speech between western and eastern culture. However the limitation of this book is that it only investigates free speech in political not in general media field.
3. Ringmar, E 2007, A Blogger’s Manifesto Free Speech and Censorship in a Digital World, Anthem Press, New York.
In this book Eric points that the internet revolution, which is the blogging, given everyone a chance to be irreverent, self-determined and ungrammatical to the public. By using blog, people are able to determine the law of themselves even these elites against it. The author uses examples to talk about blogging in LSE University and at work. Thus Erik demand that modern liberal society lives by these principles it claims to embrace, self-publication can make people live in accordance with the principles self-claim to believe in. As this book focus on explain how the blog changes people’s way of expressing themselves in general, so I think it is not good for my research topic, I want some article more academic.
4. Zeno-Zencovich, V 2008, Freedom of Expression A critical and comparative analysis, Routeledge-Cavendish, New York.
In this book, the author critics and analyzes the freedom of speech in multimedia industry includes internet, press, broadcasting and journalistic. Also he discusses that freedom of the media in Europe and how the European Union controls the freedom of communication The author debates that freedom of speech is an individual right and it is wrong to identify it with the useful freedom of the media industry. He uses examples to argue that it is a mistake to bother the multimedia industry with restrictions, as the media industry should be allowed to operate just like any other. Thus a freedom that changes according to both time and space: it is shaped by its historic connection, but also by the community where it is expressed. I think this book has some really good point in discussing freedom of speech in western culture, so I can use it as a good reference and inspired by its ways of criticizing and analyzing of case studies.
5. Loewenstien, A 2009, The Blogging Revolution, Melbourne University Press, Carlton
The author reveals the complicity of Western multinationals in assisting the restriction of information in these countries and how bloggers are leading the charge for change by using first-hand investigations. This searching examination explores how the internet is threatening the rule of particularly repressive governments – including China, Cuba, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Syria. Addressing internet censorship, citizen and journalism, and the growing popularity of blogging as a means for change, this in-depth analysis provides unique insights into these cultures as well as the latest media technologies. This book talks about freedom of speech and censorship in different countries but the author’s research just focus on blogging. So the limitation of this book is that blog is just a small part of media when it compares to newspaper, magazine and websites. However he points that a 2008 study of free speech in Australia reported that there was a desperate need for a “more open and accountable approach to information gathering, dissemination and communication. Also he into newspaper offices in Beijing and he discovered the ways in which the internet is threatening the rule of Chinese governments. So these points and researches are useful to me and help me to understand the situation of free speech in Australia and China.
6. Jingrong, T 2011, Investigative Journalism in China: Journalism, Power, and Society, The Continuum International Publishing Group, London.
In this book, Jingrong suggests that investigative journalism has become an influential element in the governance of many societies over the last century. This book helps the reader to know how knowledge is popularized and information conveyed in the world’s most populous country, by affording the first book in English on China’s investigative reporting. Filled with examples and illustrations, her work expands readers’ understanding both of China and of journalism and is an essential corrective to extensive ignorance of China’s media and their often remarkable journalists. Thus this book is talking about investigative journalism and its social impacts in China with examples. I think this book is useful to my research topic. Because journalism is an important part of media industry and my research is about the free speech in China’s media culture, so that freedom of speech of journalism in China is worth to analyze in my research project.
7. Hare, I and Weinstein, J(ed) 2009, Extreme Speech and Democracy, Oxford University Press, New York.
This book has a good explanation of free speech, democracy and the suppression of extreme speech past and present. The authors analyzed their topics by using case studies in worldwide. They talks about freedom of speech and public order and democracy in a globalized world; an overview of American free speech doctrine and its application to extreme speech; hate speech in the UK. Also this book talks about the relationship between free speech and human rights. Thus this book is very helpful to my research. I can understand the background and the definition of freedom of speech well by reading part 1 of this book. Also I can use and inspired by the cases that are mentioned in this book. To be more specific that this book is useful to my research of western media culture part.
8. Buckley, S, Duer, K, Mendel, T, Siochru, S and Raboy, M 2008, Broadcasting, Voice, and Accountability: A Public Interest Approach to Policy, Law, and Regulation. The World Bank Group, Washington, DC.
This book provides development practitioners with a wide summarisation of the key policy and guiding issues involved in supporting freedom of information and expression. The authors suggest that policy, regulation, capacity, and institutional development are important development levers that make the ownership, content, and social impacts of broadcasting systems. The guide shows the importance of enabled a mix of ownership and uses, usually classified as commercial, public service, and community broadcasting, that serves the public interest. With the aiming of this book, broadcasting policy and regulation can be tackled as a main development topic, with important consequences for government transparency, government accountability, and authorised disadvantaged constituencies to express their concerns and press for action. The information of this book is useful to my research topic as it talks about freedom of speech in media industry, especially chapter 1 and chapter 7 are the most relevant chapters.
1. Because we need to make sure our hypertext essay adheres to copyright in relation to any images or other material we include in the website we create. Our group will need to provide a full bibliography that includes references covering any images or other material that we use.
2. Because as part of writing and reading in the network as media/communication professionals we need be able to understand copyright and how it works on the Internet. Working professionally for an organisation we will need to know how to work with copyright in the creation of digital artefacts both offline and online.
3. In our blogging it is also good practice to think about how we use other people’s content and think about attribution and use of material owned by others.
What can we use in copyright?
Literate works(from books, scripts, newspapers articles, poems, university resaerches etc), Artistic works(things like paintings, photographs, sketches), Dramatic works (stage movements), Musics
Subject mater other than works:films,sound recordings, broadcasts(tv or radio)
How to get copyrights ?
We can get copyright automaticlly onece we create the works. We dont need to register copyright anywhere. Only two crictiria: must be original, must be metirial form. The authors basiclly own the copyright, or the production pay the authors.
Some few case we can get copyright without permion. There are four of them: 1. you copy things and purpose for Study 2. purpose for critising and review 3. purpose of reporting news 4.purpose for parody
The idea of universal access to research, education, and culture is made possible by the Internet, but our legal and social systems don’t always allow that idea to be realized. Copyright was created long before the emergence of the Internet, and can make it hard to legally perform actions we take for granted on the network: copy, paste, edit source, and post to the Web. The default setting of copyright law requires all of these actions to have explicit permission, granted in advance, whether you’re an artist, teacher, scientist, librarian, policymaker, or just a regular user. To achieve the vision of universal access, someone needed to provide a free, public, and standardized infrastructure that creates a balance between the reality of the Internet and the reality of copyright laws. That someone is Creative Commons.
Which Creative Commons license would you use for your group’s hypertext essay?
This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, as long as they credit you and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Which Creative Commons license would you choose for your own RMIT blog?
This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, as long as they credit you and license their new creations under the identical terms.
Before this tutorial I have never used the databases research before, I think library just search for book and journals, however I was totally wrong. From research on the databases , I found a lot of useful information.
To start research, firstly go to the rmit library website:
Reading text: Topic's to Q's
Summary / Key points:
This chapter discuss that how to : explore your interests to find a topic; narrow it to a manageable scope; question it to find the makings of a problem; then turn it into a problems that guide your research.
1. find your concern topic:
In all research communities, some problems are already "exist", widely debated and deeply researched, such as whether personality traits like shyness or an attraction to risk are genetically inherited or learned. Although there are bounch of questions people want to research in every fields. But other questions may only the have researchers' attention. For instance why do cats rub their faces against us? why do the big nuts end up at the top of the can? that is how a lot of researches begins - not with a big question. Know to everyone in a field, but with a curious that only one or few researcher feel they need to research.
Is your personal intreests are able to advocate other people's interests to dig it ? You have to decide whether the answer to your private question is also important to others. You aim not just to answer a question, but to pose and solve a problem that others also think it worth solving.
2. Narrow it down:
Once you settle on a broad topic , then you need to narrow it down to a focused one. people narrow those topics by adding words and phrases, but of a special kind: conflict, description, contribution, and development. Those nouns are derived from verbs expressing actions or relationship: to conflict, to desribe, to contribute, and to develop. Without such words, your topic is a static thing.
A more specific topic also helps you see gaps, puzzles, and inconsistencies that you can ask about when you turn your topic into a research question. A specific topic can also serve as your working title, a short answer when someone asks you what are working on.
3. Question and answer on your research topic
Once you have a focused topic, some people just go straight to resaerch on the database , summarize they articles they fond, and then conclude it. But readers of research reports don not want just information, they want the answer to a question worth asking.
The best way to find out what you do not know about a topic is to barrage it with questions. First ask the predictable ones of your field. Also ask the standard journalistic questions ; who, what, when, and where, but focus on how and why. Finally, you can systematically ask four kinds of analytical questions, about the composition, history, categorization, and values of your topic.
The lat, you should think about : Why should your interesting question also grab your readers? Valu your report, name it, and summarize it.
At the start of final year, I realised that I need to be more professional in knowing of media industry. Looking back to the last two years studies, I have learned how to filming, script writing, sound and video editing, film theories, networked media and photography. Thus now I ask myself a question - what I want to learn from the final year ? DO I fully prepared to be a media worker after graduate ? What are my advantages and disadvantages ?
The answer is that I spend a lot of time in doing productions such as videos and taking photos, but I did not spend enough time on researching and understanding the theories of media industry. So at this semester , I plan to read more articles and jourls. Also in Media industry 1 we will do the research project which also requires a good understanding of the the current media industry and have a dig on one specific topic.
research report need lots of resources so that there are a lot of stuffs need us to reference. So it is time to reminder me how to reference different type of resources.
Books (print and online)
Chang, SS 2012, Exploring everyday things with R and Ruby, O'Reilly, Sebastopol, California.
Primoratz, I 2013, Terrorism: a philosophical investigation, Polity Press, Cambridge.
Series titles and edition statements (for editions other than the first) should be included.
Goldsworthy, J 2010, Parliamentary sovereignty: contemporary debates, Cambridge studies in constitutional law, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Abbott, HP 2008, The Cambridge introduction to narrative, 2nd edn, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Two or more authors
List all authors in the list of references. See the second part of this guide for how to cite in-text.
Kakadia, D & DiMambro, F 2004, Networking concepts and technology: a designer's resource, Sun Microsystems Press, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
Flexer, RW, Baer, RM, Luft, P & Simmons, TJ 2008, Transition planning for secondary students with disabilities, 3rd edn, Pearson, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
If the role of an editor (or compiler, reviser or translator) is of primary importance, list the work under those names. Use abbreviations such as ed., eds, trans., rev., comp. and comps.
Brofenbrenner, U (ed.) 2005, Making human beings human: bioecological perspectives on human development, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California.
Ahdar, R & Aroney, N (eds) 2010, Shari'a in the West, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
United Nations. Statistical Division (comp.) 1995, The world's women 1995: trends and statistics, United Nations, New York.
|Chapters in edited books||
Callaghan, J 2010, 'Singing teaching as a profession', in S Harrison (ed.), Perspectives on teaching singing: Australian vocal pedagogues sing their stories, Australian Academic Press, Bowen Hills, Queensland.
Shachar, A 2010, 'State, religion, and the family: the new dilemmas of multicultural accommodation', in R Ahdar & N Aroney (eds), Shari'a in the West, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
The edition (if other than the first edition) is included after the main title.
Stewart, A 2009, Stewart's guide to employment law, 2nd edn, Federation Press, Annandale, New South Wales.
Triggs, B 1984, Tracks, scats and other traces: a field guide to Australian mammals, new edn, Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
|Part of a series||
The series title is included after the main title.
Muller, R & Turner, JR 2010, Project-oriented leadership, Advances in project management, Gower, Farnham, England.
Editions go after the series title.
Corrigan, T 2010, A short guide to writing about film, The short guide series from Pearson Longman, 7th edn, Longman, New York.
|Anonymous (no author or editor given)||
Start with the title.
The stage acquitted: being a full answer to Mr Collier, and other enemies of the drama 1996, Routledge/Thoemmes, London.
Trump, A 1986, 'Power play', Proceedings of the third annual conference, International Society of Power Engineers, Houston, Texas, pp. 40-51.
Katsardi, V & Swan, C 2007, 'The importance of directionality in the evolution of large waves in intermediate and shallow water', Coastal engineering 2006, volume5: proceedings of the 30th international conference, San Diego, California, USA, 3-8 September 2006, World Scientific, River Edge, New Jersey, pp. 157-69.
Further description can be provided after the conference title if useful.
Zhang, J & Xi, W 2012, 'Optimal nonlinear damping for inelastic structures using dimensional analysis', 20th analysis and computation specialty conference 2012, proceedings of a meeting sponsored by the American Society of Civil Engineers held 29-31 March, Chicago, Illinois, Curran Associates, Red Hook, New York, pp.97-106.
Occasionally, it may be necessary to cite page numbers for books. If so, present the numbers as the final item of the citation as in the example above (e.g. p. 10, pp. 19-25, pp. 21-6, pp. 21, 31-5).
|Acknowledging editors, compilers, revisers or translators||
If the author's role remains of primary importance, editors, compilers, revisers or translators can also be acknowledged. Use abbreviations such as ed., eds, trans., rev., comp. and comps.
Tolstoy, L 1930, What is art? and essays on art, trans. A Maude, Oxford University Press, London.
Mayakovsky, V 1942, Mayakovsky and his poetry, comp. H Marshall, Pilot Press, London.
The jurisdiction is not usually given for government agencies but is indicated by the place of publication.
Department of Energy 1980, Projections of energy needs, HMSO, London.
Office of the Aboriginal Land Commissioner 2001, Urapunga land claim no. 159, Parliamentary paper, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission, Canberra.
Xerox Corporation 1988, Xerox publishing standards: a manual of style and design, Watson-Guptil, New York.
Parent bodies precede subdivisions.
World Association of Veterinary Anatomists. International Committee on Avian Anatomical Nomenclature 1979, Nomina anatomica avium: an annotated anatomical dictionary of birds, Academic Press, London.
|The same authors||
Use the following order - single author entries followed by multiple author entries beginning with the same name (earliest dates first in each case).
A long dash (2-em, approximately equivalent to 4-6 hyphens in length) can be used to replace that part of the author entry which is repeated. There is no space immediately after the dash.
Chaffee, J 1991, Thinking critically, 3rd edn, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
------1998, The thinker's way: 8 steps to a richer life, Little, Brown and Company, Boston.
------, McMahon, C & Stout, B 2002, Critical thinking, thoughtful writing: a rhetoric with readings, Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
For two or more works by the same author(s) in the same year, list in alphabetical order by title.
Lyon, H & Lyon, R 2002a, The circus, Elton Publications, Wembley Downs, Western Australia.
------2002b, Clowns, Elton Publications, Wembley Downs, Western Australia.
Edited works appear after authored works.
Olson, JS & Roberts, R 1990, Where the domino fell: America and Vietnam, 1945 to 1990, St. Martin's Press, New York.
------1998, My Lai: a brief history with documents, Bedford Books, Boston.
Olson, JS (ed.) 1993, The Vietnam War: handbook of the literature and research, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut.
------& Roberts, R (eds) 1990, American experiences, volume 2: 1877 to the present, Foresman/Addison-Wesley, Glenview, Illinois.
Author Year (of creation or last revision), Title, edition/version (if applicable), name and place of the sponsor of the source (publisher, place), viewed Day Month Year,<URL either full location details or just the main site details>.
McClain, M & Roth JD 1999, Schaum's quick guide to writing great essays, McGraw-Hill, New York, viewed 17 January 2005,
Fitzgerald, FS 1920, This side of paradise, Scribner, New York, viewed 18 January 2005, <http://www.bartleby.com/115/>.
|Chapters in an online book||
Author Year (of creation or last revision), 'Chapter title', in book editor(s) (ed.), Book title, name and place of the sponsor of the source (publisher, place), viewed Day Month Year, <URL either full location details or just the main site details>.
Gould, SJ 2000, 'More things in Heaven and Earth', in H Rose & S Rose (eds), Alas, poor Darwin: arguments against evolutionary psychology, Harmony Books, NewYork, viewed 17 January 2005, <http://ezproxy.usq.edu.au/login?url=http://site.ebrary.com/lib/unisouthernqld/Doc?id=10015543>.
|Books downloaded to mobile devices||
Ware, C 2010, Cottage by the sea, Kindle version, Sourcebooks Landmark, Naperville, Illinois.
Tzu, S 2011, The art of war, Kobo version, Shambhala, Berkeley, California.
For journals, include the volume number, issue number or other identifier, and page numbers separated by commas where all these elements are available. If the journal issue has both a number and an identifier such as a month or quarter, choose one and use it consistently. If there is no volume number, the issue number or identifier should follow the journal title.
Follow the same principles for authors as outlined in the Books section.
|Journal article, one author||
When both volume and issue numbers are available.
Wong, K 2009, 'Rethinking the hobbits of Indonesia', Scientific American, vol. 301, no. 5, pp. 66-73.
Only an issue number.
Culotta, E 2008, 'Hobbit skull suggests a separate species', Science Now, no. 677, p. 2.
Other identifiers such as a month or quarter.
Hay, A 2008, 'Lovely bones: making sense of the Flores find', The Monthly, July, pp. 28-34.
|Journal article, two or more authors||
List all authors in the list of references. See later section for citing in-text.
Jones, BE & Jones, SR 1987, 'Powerful questions', Journal of Power Engineering, vol. 1, no. 3, pp.10-8.
Gibberd, R, Snow, PT, Rice, PG & Patel, NB 1991, 'Nuclear power at what price?', The Bulletin, vol. 113, June 4, pp. 51-5.
|Journal article, no author given||
Put the journal title in the author position.
ATSIC News 2002, 'Aboriginal identity and the loss of certainty', vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 50-2.
Popham, B 1987, 'Saving the future', Weekend Australian Magazine, 7-8 February, p. 10.
|Newspaper article (print), no author||All of the details are provided in the in-text citation and there is no need for an entry in the reference list.|
|Journal article on the WWW||
Author Year, 'Article title', Journal Title, volume, issue, viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.
Griffith, AI 1995, 'Coordinating family and school: mothering for schooling', Education Policy Analysis Archives, vol. 3, no. 1, viewed 12 February 1997, <http://olam.ed.asu.edu/epaa/>.
|Full-text journal article from an electronic database||
Author Year, 'Article title', Journal Title, volume, issue, paging (if given), viewed Day Month Year, Name of database service or provider, Name of database, item number (if available).
Rasid, ZM & Parish, TS 1998, 'The effects of two types of relaxation training on students' levels of anxiety',Adolescence, vol. 33, no. 129, p. 99, viewed 23 September 2007, EBSCOhost MegaFILE Premier, Academic Search Complete, item: AN589758.
The Joanna Briggs Institute 2008, 'Management of constipation in older adults', Best Practice: Evidence Based Information Sheets for Health Professionals, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 1-4, viewed 16 July 2008, JBI COnNECT, JBI Database of Best Practice Information Sheets, item: BP1138.
Gotzshe, PC & Johansen, HK 2008, 'House dust mite control measures for asthma', Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2008, no. 2, viewed 15 July 2008, The Cochrane Library, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, item: CD001187.
No author - put the journal title in the author position.
Economist 2008, 'Charging ahead', vol. 387, no. 8594, p. 58, viewed 16 September 2008, EBSCOhost MegaFile Premier, Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre, item: 34003939.
|Newspaper article on the WWW||
Author Year, 'Article title', Newspaper Title, Day Month, page number (if given), viewed Day Month Year, <URL>.
Cleary, P & Lewis, S 2001, 'It's the end of a long boom', The Australian Financial Review, 8 March, viewed 8 March 2001, <http://afr.com/australia/2001/03/08/FFXIM9PU0KC.html>.
|Newspaper article from an electronic database||
Author Year, 'Article title', Newspaper Title, Day Month, page number (if given), viewed Day Month Year, Name of database service or provider, Name of database, item number (if available).
Pianin, E 2001, 'As coal's fortunes climb, mountains tremble in W.Va; energy policy is transforming lives',The Washington Post, 25 February, p. A03, viewed 8 March 2001, Electric Library Australasia.
No author - put the newspaper title in the author position.
Gold Coast Bulletin 2007, 'Democrats vow to fight Bush', 19 February, p. 12, viewed 16 September 2008, EBSCOhost MegaFILE Premier, Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre, item: 20070219B012313637.
Author/editor or compiler Year of the most recent version, Title, version number (if applicable), description of document (if applicable), name and place of the sponsor of the source, viewed Day Month Year, <URL either full location details or just the main site details>.
Anderson, J (Minister for Transport and Regional Services) 2000, CASA approves avgas contamination test, media release, 23 January, Department of Transport and Regional Services, Canberra, viewed 7 February 2000, <http://www.dotrs.gov.au/media/anders/archive/2000/jan_00/al6_2000.htm>.
Australian Taxation Office 2012, Income tax: deductibility of self-education expenses incurred by an employee or a person in business, taxation ruling, TR 98/9, Australian Taxation Office, viewed 6 February 2013, <http://law.ato.gov.au/atolaw/view.htm?DocID=TXR/TR989/NAT/ATO/00001&PiT=99991231235958>.
AWB Limited 2006a, AWB and the single desk, AWB Limited, Melbourne, Victoria, viewed 1 June 2006, <http://www.awb.com.au/aboutawb/factsandindustryinformation/
------2006b, Inquiry into the United Nations Oil-for-Food Program - statement from the Board of AWB Limited, AWB Limited, Melbourne, Victoria, viewed 1 June 2006, <http://www.awb.com.au/aboutawb/media/InquiryIntoTheUnitedNationsOilforFoodProgram.htm>.
Florek, S 2003, Megafauna extinction: patterns of extinction, fact sheet, Australian Museum, Sydney, viewed 14 June 2008, <http://www.austmus.gov.au/factsheets/megafauna.htm>.
Wright, S 2004, Open area test site (OATS) development, undergraduate project, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, viewed 27 March 2007, <http://eprints.usq.edu.au/archive/00000047>.
|Web document (no author)||
Title Year, version number (if applicable), description of document (if applicable), name and place of the sponsor of the source, viewed Day Month Year, <URL either full location details or just the main site details>.
Educating America for the 21st century: developing a strategic plan for educational leadership by Columbia University 1993-2000 (initial workshop draft) 1994, draft workshop report, Institute for Learning Technologies, Columbia University, viewed 16 May 1995, <http://ariel.adgrp.com/~ghb/trips/940717_ICT/policy/ILT/EdPlan.html>.
|Web document (no publication date)||
Author n.d., Title, version number (if applicable), description of document (if applicable), name and place of the sponsor of the source, viewed Day Month Year, <URL either full location or just main site details>.
Sherman, C n.d., The invisible web, Free Pint Limited, United Kingdom, viewed 27 November 2000, <http://www.freepint.co.uk/issues/080600.htm#feature>.
Author (the person or organisation responsible for the site) Year (that the site was created or last revised), name and place of the sponsor of the source, viewed Day Month Year,<URL>.
The Body Shop Australia 2003, The Body Shop Australia, Mulgrave, Victoria, viewed 31 January 2003, <http://www.thebodyshop.com.au/>.
Author (the person or organisation responsible, if available) Year, Title of image (or a description), description of document (if applicable), name and place of the sponsor of the source, viewed Day Month Year, <URL either full location details or just the main site details>.
If there is no named author, put the image title first followed by the date.
Title of image (or a description) Year, description of document (if applicable), name and place of the sponsor of the source, viewed Day Month Year, <URL either full location details or just the main site details>.
The lunar interior 1999, PlanetScapes, United States, viewed 31 January 2003, <http://www.planetscapes.com/solar/browse/moon/moonint.jpg>.
Australia 2007, country map, MapQuest, United Kingdom, viewed 11 March 2008, <http://www.mapquest.co.uk/mq/maps/mapAddress.do>.
Lane, M & Cook, J 1775, A general chart of the island of Newfoundland, digital image of cartographic material, Wikimedia Commons, viewed 11 March 2008, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Cooks_Karte_von_Neufundland.jpg>.
AC Nielsen 2008, Consumer confidence, concerns, spending and attitudes to recession: a global Nielsen consumer report, digital image, AC Nielsen, viewed 21 August 2008, <http://au.acnielsen.com/site/documents/GlobalNielsenConsConfConcReportJune08b.pdf>.
Harrell, F 2011, Data for Titanic passengers, data file, Vanderbilt University, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, Tennessee, viewed 17 November 2011, <http://biostat.mc.vanderbilt.edu/wiki/pub/Main/DataSets/titanic.txt>.
Bureau of Meteorology 2011, High- quality Australian daily rainfall dataset, Australia's high-quality climate change datasets, data file, Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology, viewed 17 November 2011, <ftp://ftp.bom.gov.au/anon/home/ncc/www/change/HQdailyR>.
Herbert, WG 1987, The Australian beef industry: an overview, Australian Livestock Council, Canberra, microfiche.
Connor, PM 2005, Collector for solar radiation, Australian Patent 2004243336.
International Organization for Standardization 2003, Traveller irrigation machines - part 1 - operational characteristics and laboratory and field test methods, ISO 8224-1:2003, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva.
Standards Australia 2003, Installation of security screen doors and window grilles, AS 5040-2003, Standards Australia, Sydney, viewed 16 September 2008, <http://www.saiglobal.com/online/autologin.asp>.
Department of Mines and Energy 2007, Queensland gold resources, Australia 1:3 000 000 geological series, sheet 9986, Department of Mines and Energy, Brisbane, Queensland.
Logan Central QLD 2010, street map, Google maps, Australia, viewed 10 August 2010, <http://maps.google.com.au/maps?h1=en&tab=w1>.
See other examples in the Online Images part of the Web Documents and Sites section of this guide.
|Digital Maps and Spatial Science Collection||
Department of Natural Resources and Water 2004, Declared catchments of dams 2004, Department of Natural Resources and Water, Queensland, viewed 18 September 2008, <http://coursereadings.usq.edu.au/services/spatial.php>.
The following details should be provided in a reference list - title, date of recording, format, publisher, place of recording. Any special credits and other information that might be useful can be noted after the citation.
Fahrenheit 9/11 2004, DVD, Columbia TriStar Home Entertainment, Culver City, California. Written, produced and directed by Michael Moore.
Grumpy meets the orchestra 1992, video recording, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Sydney. Featuring the Sydney Symphony Orchestra.
Sunday too far away 1975, motion picture, South Australian Film Corporation, Adelaide. Distributed by Rainbow Products Ltd, Sydney, and starring Jack Thompson, Reg Lye and Max Cullen.
What are we going to do with the money? 1997, television program, ABC Television, Sydney, 8 August.
The search for meaning 1998, radio program, ABC Radio, Sydney, 24 March.
Australia through time 1994, CD-ROM, Random ROM in assoc. with the ABC, Sydney.
- Legislation is only included in a list of references if it is important to the understanding of the work (preferably in a separate list under the subheading 'Legislation').
- The titles of pieces of legislation should be cited exactly. Neither spelling or capitalisation should be altered to suit the referencing style. Articles (a, an or the) should not be omitted.
- Even if viewed electronically, legislation is generally referenced as if in print (unless only available electronically).
- Legal authorities (cases) are only included in a list of references if they are important to the understanding of the work under the subheading 'Legal authorities'.
- Legislation viewed in an annotated legislation textbook is cited in Legislation format, not Book format, unless referring to the editorial commentary/analysis, rather than the legislative provision.
For Acts include - Name of Act Year (Jurisdiction)
Copyright Act 1968 (Cwlth)
Anti-Discrimination Act 1991 (Qld)
For Bills include - Name of Bill Year (Legislative Body) (no italics)
Anti-terrorism Bill 2004 (House of Representatives)
|Legal authorities (cases)||Include the name of the case and reference details.
Carey v. Price (2005) 132 ALR 255
The Commonwealth v. The State of Tasmania (1983) 158 CLR 1; (1983) 57 ALJR 450; (1983) 46 ALR 625 (the Tasmanian Dam Case)
McDonald's Corporation v. Joburgers Drive-Inn Restaurant (Pty) Ltd (1996) 36 IPR 11 at 20
Personal communications are not included in the list of references at the end.
Personal communications can include things such as letters, memos, emails, facsimiles, interviews, informal conversations, telephone calls and lecture presentations.
Full details of the date (day, month and year) should be provided in the text. Initials are included.
(Ayers, RN 1991, pers. comm., 2 July).
MK Larsen (1983, pers. comm., 1 May) said...
On 20 July 2006, Ms A Brown confirmed ...
|Theses, papers and abstracts||
Present the title of the document in roman type and in quotation marks. The other details will vary according to the nature of the document.
Langdon, WB 1996, 'Data structures and genetic programming', PhD thesis, University College, London.
Bouchert-Bert, L 2002, 'When humans entered the northern forests: an archaeological and palaeoenvironmental perspective', MA dissertation, University of Calgary.
Pomfret, R 2001, 'Economic diversification of the new independent central Asian countries', paper to be presented at the International Conference on Economic Diversification of Small States, Brunei, 12-13 November.
Muhingo, E & Boniface, R 2003, 'Involving men to increase family planning acceptance', abstract presented at the Reproductive Health Response in Conflict Consortium Conference, Brussels, Belgium, 7-8 October.
|Manuscripts||If it is difficult to provide details about the location of a manuscript, be systematic.
Abramiuk, M 2002, 'A preliminary report on classic Maya ground stone tool exchange in and around the southern Maya mountains of Belize', in possession of the author.
Adams, DE 1917, 'My journey to Khartoum', in possession of MA Adams, Adelaide.
Joyce, TA 1931, 'Report of the British Museum expedition to British Honduras, 1931', in possession of the Central Archives of the British Museum.
Hudson, DE 1909-18, 'Diary', Hudson Papers, Fisher Library, University of Sydney.
Benton, TH 1847, 'Letter to Charles Fremont, 22 June', John Charles Fremont Papers, Southwest Museum Library, Los Angeles.